Matter is designed to support long-term brain health with a specific combination of B-vitamins (B6, folic acid and B12) that was shown in a clinical study to slow age-related brain atrophy associated with mild memory concerns, omega-3s, and a bilberry extract that is rich in plant-based antioxidants called anthocyanins. All of these ingredients have been shown, through a combination of epidemiological research and clinical trials, to support brain function.
The B-vitamin complex plays an important role in maintaining normal metabolism of the amino acid homocysteine. High homocysteine levels are associated with advanced age and have been shown to correlate with the rate of brain atrophy in healthy adults. In the University of Oxford's VITACOG study, two-year supplementation with the B-vitamin complex was shown to effectively lower homocysteine levels and slow age-related brain atrophy in 168 older people with mild memory concerns. Other studies of shorter duration have indicated that the effect of B vitamin supplementation on homocysteine levels occurs in the order of a few months.
Clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids is an effective way to increase levels of EPA and DHA - both of which are important for long-term brain health. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that a single dose of omega-3 fatty acids will significantly elevate circulating plasma levels of EPA and DHA. Plasma levels of EPA and DHA typically reach a new steady state within a month of supplementation. It takes a little longer for levels of omega-3 to build up in the body. For instance, it may take 3 – 4 months for EPA and DHA to be incorporated into the red blood cell membrane.
With regards to bilberry, there is evidence that the anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract found in Matter is more bioavailable compared to highly purified anthocyanin extracts. In preclinical studies, plasma levels of anthocyanins have been shown to peak 20 minutes post-supplementation. Human clinical studies in healthy older adults have shown cognitive benefits associated with long-term supplementation (several months) with anthocyanin-rich foods and extracts.
B-VITAMINS AND HOMOCYSTEINE:
Meta-analysis of homocysteine-lowering clinical trials; most studies are between 28 - 84 days in duration (see Table 1): https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/82/4/806/4607503
16-week dietary supplementation increased EPA and DHA in red blood cells: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/86/6/1621/4649678
An acute dose of fish oil capsules elevates plasma EPA and DHA, but not in RBC membranes: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1933287413001980
Cognitive improvements in healthy older adults: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28283823/